In addition to conducting a visual examination, characterization tests and supplementary measurements are needed in Special Inspections. This level of investigation requires a plan prior to the inspection, detailing and assessing the aspects to be studied, as well as the techniques and means to be employed.
In general, the result of a special inspection is a report on the characterization and assessment of the damages and/or a repair plan.
Some examples of specific inspections are:
• Geotechnical soil analysis with taking of samples
• Assessment of the resistance of the concrete by means of taking test samples
• Sclerometer tests
• Salts maps
• Ultrasound tests
• Assessment of the characteristics of the steel by means of traction tests
• Determining the situation of the reinforcement bars by means of electromagnetic systems
• Electrical potential measurements for determining the corrosion-related condition of the reinforcements
• Chemical analysis of the concrete to detect possible causes of attacks on the cement paste or the aggregates
• Chloride content in the concrete which may have possibly favoured the corrosion of the reinforcements
• Determination of the carbonatation depth
• Analysis of welds by means of penetrating liquids or gammagraphy